Thursday, March 12, 2020

Biomechanics of sit to stand Essays

Biomechanics of sit to stand Essays Biomechanics of sit to stand Paper Biomechanics of sit to stand Paper The capability of moving from a sitting to a standing position is considered as an essential marker for functional independence (Gill et al., 1995) as well as a determinant for risk of falls (Campbell et al., 1989). Specific balance examinations have been designed to determine the agility of an individual in standing up from a sitting position.   The score system employed in these balance tests is based on the time it takes to achieve the sit-to-stand action and an individual receiving a low score translates to a difficulty in standing up from a sitting position. The action of standing up from a seated position is an intricate action that is associated with the shift from one stable position to another through the engagement of technically all the parts of the body except the feet.   Hence the simultaneous action of sitting and standing involves two major aspects in musculoskeletal control.   Firstly, voluntary movement of several parts of the body facilitate in the transformation of a posture from sitting to standing. Secondly, control of equilibrium is also involved in change in posture because there is a change in the body’s centre of gravity (Cacciatore et al., 2005).   Such displacement is associated with the center of gravity moving forward and backward alongside vertical motion.   Biomedical science has considered the entire mechanism of the coupled sitting and standing postures as a valuable standard in studying the principles behind the synchronization of posture and movement. Several reports have suggested the posture and movement are associated with elderly individuals hence investigators have studied anticipatory postural reactions during actions of the arms which are generally more slowly performed. The biomechanics of these postural reactions have also been investigated using a platform that was in constant motion and these studies shows variations in magnitude and timing of movement of body segments between healthy older individuals and young control subjects.   Research regarding the action of standing up among young subjects revealed the different stages of movement using kinetic and kinematic data.   Other research efforts described the influence of the trunk to the change in the center of gravity. It has been reported that the employment of a high seat and the facilitative use of hands for pushing results in a lowering of the torque in the hips and knee joints. The standing position involves balance control as well as variations in the speed in performing the act and termination restrictions with changes in the standing position.   It was observed that the center of gravity was controlled in a horizontal direction and this represents an essential factor in maintaining the dynamic balance while performing the movement.   Investigations regarding the succession of stages from the standing to the sitting position using force platform data revealed that the time involved in sitting down is longer than the time involved in standing up. Majority of research efforts on the biomechanics of sitting down and standing up aimed to analyze and evaluate the kinetics of the entire action in order to provide a better understanding of the phases of movement in relation to gravity.   It has been observed that each phase of the movement is distinct from each other.   Research studies were also designed to determine the effect of age of an individual on the movement kinetics. Such research efforts on age-related kinetics reported that critical role of foot position and the centre of velocity in regulating the stability once an individual gets off the seated position.   It has been suggested that the main kinetic mechanism involved in sitting and standing actions that differentiates young individuals from the elderly is the first step of standing up or the rising up from the seated position.   There are differences in the kinetics of standing up among elderly individuals.   The two stages of movement composed of standing up and sitting down have been well studied. Angular displacement of the trunk is an essential component of the actions of standing up and sitting down.   Also known as the to-and-fro action, the first position and mechanical settings of this action is influenced by the effect of gravity.   The trajectories of the acromion in the sagittal plane have provided the proof the similar forms are observed in both the seated and standing positions. The tranjectories of both positions actually do not change during the movement.   However, the trajectory of the trochanter varies with regards to the function of the movements, which in turn are influenced by gravity and the posture of the individual during each stage.   It has been observed that the angular displacement of the trunk during the seated and the standing positions remain the same, when analyzed with respect to the vertical axis.

Tuesday, February 25, 2020

Nelson Mandela Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Nelson Mandela - Research Paper Example ‘Long walk to freedom† is his autobiography in which he explains the hard facts of his life. Tenure of his imprisonment and his personal life style is clear to understand in his book. Hardships and finally the victory and attainment of his aim became known to the world through his autobiography. Mandela’s father was a councilor to tribal chiefs in Transkei. Due to shortage of resources and non-availability of basic facilities, Mandela played games of young boys made of natural materials. He was the first one in his family to attend school. His life was dramatically changed after the death of his father from a disease when he was only 9 (Mandela 37). His circumcision ceremony was held when he was 16 years old. It was a tradition in South Africa as a symbol of manhood. According to rules, a boy cannot have his father’s wealth unless the individual is converted to manhood. Even than the land of his father was in the custody of white people (Bezdrob 78). Mandela joined the university college after completion of basic studies. This was the only institutes for black people to seek higher education. Finally, he was expelled from college for protesting against food and lack of power in student representative council (SRC) (Villa 45). Mandela entered in politics by joining the African national congress in 1942. Mandela joined the group of young Africans during Second World War that was finally converted to African national congress youth league (ANCYL). His dedication and work for racial rights earned him the secretary ship of council in 1947. This movement aimed at complete citizen rights and parliamentary representation of all Africans. ANCYL launched its campaign against unjust laws of 1952 under the directions of Mandela as volunteer in chief. Mandela was trailed for mass involvement in anti government campaigns. After the trails, he was prohibited to attend any gathering and was

Saturday, February 8, 2020

Ethical Hacking Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Ethical Hacking - Research Paper Example An ethical hacker will attempt to hack his way through a company’s internet security system so that any weaknesses within it can be found. Companies, which use ethical hackers, do so in order to boost their security against individuals whose aim might be to bypass its security system for malicious purposes. There are, however, rules, which should be strictly followed in order for this hacking procedure to be considered ethical. The first of these is that the hacker must only conduct the hacking if he has been given permission to do so by the company’s management and this requires that he be given a written consent, in case of any issues that may arise later. Secondly, the ethical hacker must be able to ensure that he does not violate the privacy of the individuals or the company for who he is working, and should instead only deal with the security issues that are encountered. The hacker must ensure that all the security vulnerabilities that the company has are reported to its administration so that the necessary steps can be taken to secure the company’s network from malicious hackers. ... It is a situation where the ethical values concerning hacking are judged not by the normal definitions of the actions but through its positive aspects. Using this definition, it can be stated that the morals are no longer absolute when dealing with matters concerning hacking, because it is no longer necessarily a matter of its being malicious, but also of its being used for the enhancement of network security (Langley, 2005). A good number of the proponents of this theory believe that morality can now be used to describe hacking, since there are those who might do it for good as well as malicious purposes. The fact that ethical hacking has now become a part of the normal corporate life should not be underestimated since ethical hackers have now become an integral part of the fight against illegal and malicious hacking. The realization of this fact is one of the reasons why many companies are increasingly employing ethical hackers in order to protect their systems (Palmer, 2001). One of the advantages of ethical hacking is the fact that a broad range of threats are realized early and steps are taken to repair them. Since there are a wide variety of network threats from hackers, it is easier for a company, through ethical hacking, to deal with these threats before they become unmanageable, or before any damage to the network is done. Moreover, ethical hacking promotes the fact that not all hackers are malicious and that in fact, there are those hackers out there who can be used as a force of good through their helping to protect vulnerable network systems from malicious hackers (O'Boyle, 2002). Since it is the society which judges what is right or wrong, the it is therefore easier to categorize hackers in such a way that there

Thursday, January 30, 2020

Curriculum designing guidelines Essay Example for Free

Curriculum designing guidelines Essay Purpose The construction of experiences and outcomes that effectively provide progression in each curriculum area and convey the values, principles and purposes of A Curriculum for Excellence is central to the success of the program. In particular, it is important that you reflect relevant aspects of the four capacities in your work. If we can get this right these outcomes and experiences will have a significant, positive, impact on classroom practice and hence on the learning experience of all children and young people. It is an exciting prospect. Starting point In phase 1 each early review group should be asked to simplify and prioritise the curriculum (from age 3 to 15 in the first instance) retaining what currently works well and making changes where these were justified by research evidence. The output from phase 1 of the review process and the rationale for your curriculum area, research and other national and international comparators are your starting points. Your work will be based on the relevant parts of the Curriculum Frameworks: for Children 3 – 5, 5 – 14 guidelines, Standard Grade, and National Qualifications. It is important that experience and outcome statements you write at each Curriculum for Excellence level provide appropriate cognitive demand. The framework for outcomes The experiences and outcomes will sit within a framework of advice to teachers. Curriculum Area The eight curriculum areas are: Expressive Arts, Health and Wellbeing, Languages, Maths, Religious and Moral Education, Science, Social Studies and Technologies. Rationale The rationale provides an overview of the curriculum area states its main purposes and describes its contribution to the values and purposes. Subsets of the curriculum area Each curriculum area is subdivided either into fields of learning – or ‘subjects’ (e. g. Expressive Arts into art, drama, dance and music) or into aspects of learning in that area (e. g. Languages into listening and talking, reading and writing) Lines of development These identify learning tracks in each subset of the curriculum area. They are expressed in different ways in each area of the curriculum. For example within expressive arts they identify the skills to be developed: creating, presenting and evaluating in art, drama, dance and music; within science they describe broad areas of knowledge and understanding to be developed; biodiversity, being human and cells in Our Living World. Experiences and outcomes Within each line of development, experiences and outcomes describe the expected progression in learning for children and young people. Essential outcomes. Essential outcomes are a small number of high level statements, derived from the main purposes described in the rationale, that encapsulate what learning in that curriculum area provides for all children and young people. Taken together, the essential outcomes are intended to sum up the expectations for the broad general education of all young people. The focus of your work will be writing the experiences and outcomes for your curriculum area. It is likely that there will be interplay between what you produce and the ‘essential outcomes’ , which are the ones helping to shape and refine the other in an iterative manner. Outcomes should be written in the clearest possible English. Where possible these should be accessible to children and young people, but not at the expense of clarity. It is also important to try to write lively and engaging experiences and outcomes. Best Practices of Writing the Curriculum Ultimately the intention is to produce streamlined guidance for the entire curriculum in a single document. We also intend to make the outcomes available in electronic format to allow curriculum leaders and teachers to identify and blend outcomes from both within and beyond curriculum areas. Several stages will be required to achieve this.

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

offensive language Essay -- essays research papers

Offensive Language Throughout the day, I find myself exposed to harsh language. Whether in at work or walking through the hallways at school, it is all around us. Later, as I accelerate through rush-hour traffic, I discover that I use these words as well, lashing out with blunt verbal terms in the safety of my enclosed vehicle. I have used bad language before, but I do use it often. I have friends that cuss every other word. However, I do not care for it much. It is not so much offensive, just bothersome. Whether your daily vocabulary consists of several cuss words or it is just the occasional â€Å"shit† in a fit of anger or pain, everyone is guilty of it. Who hasn’t accidentally let a word slip when they slam their finger in a door or stub their toe on the coffee table? Is this impressive, of course not. There used to be a day that when you said â€Å"shit† in public, it was like exploding a bomb in public; people would fall silent, staring at you with half-angry open mouths. Mot hers would clap their hands over their children’s ears and push them away from you; desperately trying to keep their kids form such language. But today, we’ve fallen. Sure there are still a few people that cringe at the sound of vulgar language, but not many. In the 1970’s, George Carlin delivered a monologue citing seven words that you could never say on network television. Now, these words are being used regularly on network television. You could say that swear words have lost their impact, or, you could argue that our language has become downright coarse, offensive, and rude. Where do Cuss words come from, and what do they really mean? Originally it began as cursing. These are the words and phrases that you say in order to curse someone. It was some sort of supernatural or magical belief. Nowadays, people know that telling someone to â€Å"Go to Hell† will not actually curse them there, no matter how angrily it is said. The evolution of profanity continues to change with each generation. Some cuss words have somehow maintained their original meanings throughout hundreds of years, while many others have completely changed meaning or simply fallen out of use. The meaning behind a word is what makes it acceptable or unacceptable. Veterinarians use the word â€Å"bitch† on a regular basis, and think nothing of it. The meaning of the word is female dog. It is a fine word to use in that profession, or... ... the disrespect we have for everything, and our lack of manners, but also a growing rage that we obviously don’t know what to do with. Bad language is all over the media, informing in the attitudes of young people. It creeps into our workplace and into our homes. We need to find a way to diffuse some of this rage, and find more constructive ways to express it.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Words are very powerful and word usage is extremely important. Unfortunately, we are living in a society that seems to have forgotten the basics of language. Our growing tolerance of swear words is not a sign of progress, it is a sign of how we have lowered our standards. I am not saying that I am completely innocent. I do not cuss on a regular basis, but when I drop something heavy on my foot the expression â€Å"Darn It† just doesn’t seem to cut it. The fact that we even have words that are considered â€Å"profane† is silly. Words are words, and nothing more. They only exist to describe things. The words poop, crap, and shit all mean exactly the same thing. Why on earth is one of them incorrect to use and the others not? It may not make sense, but that is the way it is and it probably always will be.

Monday, January 13, 2020

Developmental Disabilities

Developmental disabilities may become apparent before the age of 22 and thus may cause physical or mental limitations. Developmental abilities involve mental retardation, epilepsy, autism, cerebral palsy and other neurological impairments. In the result people may have either limited mobility or limited ability to take care of their physical needs. Nowadays people suffering from developmental abilities, especially in older age, face social challenges, though have the opportunity to enjoy a full and active life.All they need is understanding, encouragement and readiness of family members to help them to become part of their community. Therefore the project will work out new initiatives and ideas how to expand and strengthen the support system of family. Furthermore, the project will provide better understanding of management and support of family members and will contain relevant materials to share with families. Moreover, the project aims at assisting in future planning, trusts, will s and guardianship.The study thus will provide unique knowledge about elder people suffering from developmental disabilities. The objectives of the study are to improve family- directed support and to provide technical assistance in defining personal needs, plans as well as implementation of programs and evaluation of the results. Furthermore, the specific goals of the research is to strengthen programs aimed at providing families with abilities and proper knowledge how to take care of elder members suffering from developmental disabilities.The present project will be assessed through the methods of description, case study and desktop research. A literature search revealed over 150 articles and books on the managing and supporting people with developmental disabilities. Over two-thirds of these were prescriptive and written by practitioners, consultants and journalists. There is also a steady flow of research and ideas on how to improve the quality of family support. References Hollins S, Sireling L. (1990). Working Through Loss with People Who Have Learning Disabilities. Windsor: NFER-Nelson. Kloeppel D, Hollins S. (1989). Mental Retardation and Death in the Family. Death Studies, 13, 31-38. Stroebe, M., Storebe, W., Hansson, R. (1993). Handbook of Bereavement. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Sunday, January 5, 2020

Definition and Examples of a Persona in Literature

A persona is a voice or mask that an author, speaker, or performer puts on for a particular purpose. Plural: personae or personas. Persona comes from the Latin word meaning mask, and may also be referred to as an implied author or an artificial author. Author Katherine Anne Porter explained the relation between writing style and persona: A cultivated style would be like a mask. Everybody knows its a mask, and sooner or later you must show yourself — or at least, you show yourself as someone who could not afford to show himself, and so created something to hide behind (Writers at Work, 1963). Similarly, essayist E.B. White observed that writing is a form of imposture. Im not at all sure I am anything like the person I seem to a reader. Various Observations on Persona [L]ike the I of the lyric and of the real and invented autobiography, the I of the essayist is a mask.(Joseph P. Clancy, The Literary Genres in Theory and Practice. College English, April 1967)The artful I of an essay can be as chameleon as any narrator in fiction.(Edward Hoagland, What I Think, What I Am)He who speaks is not he who writes, and he who writes is not he who is.†(Roland Barthes, quoted by Arthur Krystal in Except When I Write. Oxford University Press, 2011)You may rely on it that you have the best of me in my books, and that I am not worth seeing personally — the stuttering, blundering, clod-hopper that I am.(Henry David Thoreau, letter to Calvin H. Greene, February 10, 1856)Writing is a form of imposture. Im not at all sure I am anything like the person I seem to a reader. . . .[T]he man on paper is always a more admirable character than his creator, who is a miserable creature of nose colds, minor compromises, and sudden flights into nobility. . . . I sup pose readers who feel friendly toward someone whose work they like seldom realize that they are drawn more toward a set of aspirations than toward a human being.(E.B. White, Letters of E.B. White, ed. by Dorothy Lobrano Guth. Harper, 1976)[T]he person in a personal essay is a written construct, a fabricated thing, a character of sorts--the sound of its voice a byproduct of carefully chosen words, its recollection of experience, its run of thought and feeling, much tidier than the mess of memories, thoughts, and feelings arising in ones consciousness. . . . Indeed, when personal essayists write about self-embodiment in the essay, they often acknowledge an element of fabrication or of artful impersonation.(Carl H. Klaus, The Made-Up Self: Impersonation in the Personal Essay. University of Iowa Press, 2010) Perlman on Person and Persona Persona is the Latin word for the masks used in the Greek drama. It meant that the actor was heard and his identity recognized by others through the sounds that issued from the open mask mouth. From it the word person emerged to express the idea of a human being who meant something, who represented something, and who seemed to have some defined connectedness with others by action or affects. (We still use person to connote this: we say of an infant who begins to show awareness of self in relation to others, Hes becoming a person.) A person makes himself known, felt, taken in by others, through his particular roles and their functions. Some of his personae — his masks — are readily detachable and put aside, but others become fused with his skin and bone.(Helen Harris Perlman, Persona: Social Role and Personality. University of Chicago Press, 1986) Hemingway's Public Persona According to those who knew him well, Hemingway was a sensitive, often shy man whose enthusiasm for life was balanced by his ability to listen intently . . . That was not the Hemingway of the news stories. The media wanted and encouraged a brawnier Hemingway, a two-fisted man whose life was fraught with dangers. The author, a newspaper man by training, was complicit in this creation of a public persona, a Hemingway that was not without factual basis, but also not the whole man. Critics, especially, but the public as well, Hemingway hinted in his 1933 letter to [Maxwell] Perkins, were eager automatically to label Hemingways characters as himself, which helped establish the Hemingway persona, a media-created Hemingway that would shadow — and overshadow — the man and writer.(Michael Reynolds, Hemingway in Our Times. The New York Times, July 11, 1999) Borges and the Other Self It is to my other self, to Borges, that things happen. I walk about Buenos Aires and I pause, almost mechanically, to contemplate the arch of an entry or the portal of a church; news of Borges comes to me in the mail, and I see his name on a short list of professors or in a biographical dictionary. I am fond of hourglasses, maps, 18th-century typography, the etymology of words, the tang of coffee, and the prose of Stevenson; the other one shares these enthusiasms, but in a rather vain, theatrical way. . . .I cannot tell which one of us is writing this page.(Jorge Luis Borges, Borges and I)